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  • James Houser

Unknown Soldiers Episode 9: The Wrath of Njinga - Pictures, Maps, & Sources

Hey guys, thanks for listening this week! Below are some handy maps, some images, and of course all my sources. I will see you on Monday!

A Map of Ndongo and Matamba, taken from Linda Heywood's Njinga of Angola: Africa's Warrior Queen

Above: three different portrayals of Njinga. On the left, a Portuguese portrait c. 1830s; in the center, the statue discussed in our episode, erected in 2002; on the right, an image from a UNESCO comic book published in 2014.

Above: images from an Angolan feature-length film, Njinga, released in 2015


Heywood, Linda and John K. Thornton, Central Africans, Atlantic Creoles, and the Making of the Americas, 1580-1660. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007.

Heywood, Linda M. Njinga of Angola: Africa's Warrior Queen. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2017.

Miller, Joseph C. Kings and Kinsmen: Early Mbundu States in Angola. London: Oxford University Press, 1976.

Thornton, John K. Warfare in Atlantic Africa, 1500-1800. London: UCL Press, 1999.

Thornton, John K. “The Art of War in Angola, 1575-1680.” Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 30, No. 2 (Apr. 1988), 360-378.

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